There has been recent changes to the smoke and carbon monoxide alarm regulations in England, Wales and Scotland for landlords and tenants.


The Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Alarm (Amendment) Regulations 2022 came into force on 1 October 2022. From that date, all relevant landlords must:

  • Ensure at least one smoke alarm is equipped on each storey of their homes where there is a room used as living accommodation. This has been a legal requirement in the private rented sector since 2015
  • Ensure a carbon monoxide alarm is equipped in any room used as living accommodation which contains a fixed combustion appliance (excluding gas cookers)
  • Ensure smoke alarms and carbon monoxide alarms are repaired or replaced once informed and found that they are faulty


Since February 2022 all homes in Scotland are required to have the following alarms installed:

  • One smoke alarm - installed in every circulation space on each floor level, such as hallways and landings
  • One smoke alarm - installed in the room most used for general daytime living purposes
  • One heat alarm - installed in every kitchen space
  • One carbon monoxide alarm - installed in every room with a carbon-fuelled appliance (such as boilers, fires, stoves and heaters) or a flue

All alarms should be ceiling mounted and interlinked so that when one alarm is activated, all alarms in the property will sound to provide a synchronised warning throughout.


From 1st December 2022, the Renting Homes (Fitness for Human Habitation) (Wales) Regulations will come into force. New rules on smoke alarms and carbon monoxide alarms are stipulated as part of the regulations.

To comply with the new smoke alarm regulations, landlords must ensure all rented properties have a minimum of:

  • At least one hard-wired smoke alarm (mains powered) on each level of the home
  • All hard-wired alarms must be interlinked, either via a wireless radio-interlinking system or wired interlinking system
  • A carbon monoxide alarm in any room with a fuel burning appliance (gas, oil or solid fuel)
  • A heat alarm in the kitchen